Snapshot: China’s Economic Growth

China Economy
The standard of living of Chinese in the years ahead will depend to a very large degree on the economic growth that they are able to maintain.

China is the world’s most populous country. China’s GDP is estimated to have grown at 9.9 percent in 2005. Inflows of foreign direct investment (FDI) into China totaled $86.1 billion in 2005.

China delinked its currency from the U.S. dollar in July 2005, resulting in an initial devaluation of 2.1 percent. Since the devaluation, the Chinese currency has appreciated about 1.4 percent against the U.S. dollar as of mid-July 2006.

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Economic Snapshot: Russian Federation

Russian economic reforms have made considerable progress since Mr Putin became President in 2000. The GDP growth and the surplus/deficit in the state budget are closely linked to world oil prices. The GDP growth rate was 9.7% in 2006, and 8.1% in 2007. Russia is one of the most industrialized of the former Soviet republics. However, years of very low investment have left much of Russian industry antiquated and highly inefficient. Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber comprise almost 80% of Russian exports.

Russia’s main trading partners are Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Britain, the United States, Ukraine, Kazakstan, Belarus, China, and Japan. Exports for 1995 estimated at US$77.8 billion, imports US$57.9 billion. Russian Chamber of commerce and Industry provides support in protecting entrepreneurs’ business interests, promoting interaction between entrepreneurs and the government authorities, encouraging development of an educational system to train business managers, and mediating in disputes arising between businesses and entrepreneurs.

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Case Study: Iran and Oil

Iran OilAccording to IEA, global demand is expected to rise to 86.8 million barrels a day this year, up from 85.8 million barrels last year. Analysts are revising the oil price forecasts, with some saying $140, and others $200, could be written on the tag for a barrel of crude in the future.

Although Iran is Opec’s second-largest exporter, production at the country’s leading oil and gasfields is believed to be falling by as much as 10 per cent annually because of a lack of investment and expertise.

Oil demand in Iran has also grown at 5 per cent annually for the past five years, the same rate as in China. Iran produces an estimated 4.2 million barrels per day (bbl/d) of total liquids, of which 3.8 million bbl/d is crude oil, equal to 5 percent of global production. Iran has 136 billion barrels of proven oil reserves, or roughly 10 percent of the world’s total proven petroleum reserves. The country has 40 producing fields, 27 onshore and 13 offshore, with the majority of crude oil reserves located in the southwestern Khuzestan region near the Iraqi border.

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